Commit d82e5e44 authored by jeremycherfas's avatar jeremycherfas
Browse files

Updates received

parent e8102c61
......@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
## Biodiversity in Trust
Eleven member institutes of the CGIAR Consortium maintain genebanks. Collectively, these form the largest store of agricultural biodiversity in the world. More than 710,000 accessions range from unimproved wild relatives of crops through to elite breeding lines developed by CGIAR scientists. CGIAR genebanks also maintain tree species and bacteria. Some accessions are kept as seeds, others in field genebanks and yet others in test-tube, or _in-vitro_, collections.
Eleven member institutes of the CGIAR Consortium maintain genebanks. Collectively, these form the largest store of agricultural biodiversity in the world. More than 750,000 accessions range from unimproved wild relatives of crops through to elite breeding lines developed by CGIAR scientists. CGIAR genebanks also maintain tree species and bacteria. Some accessions are kept as seeds, others in field genebanks and yet others in test-tube, or _in-vitro_, collections.
Over the past 10 years, CGIAR genebanks have [distributed more than a million samples][cgiar] to plant breeders and crop researchers. You can [use Genesys to order material][genesys-pgr] from CGIAR and other genebanks.
......
Title: africarice 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 26 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: africarice 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 26 August 2016 Format: snippet
# Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
The [genebank of AfricaRice][africarice] is in Cotonou, Benin, where the centre had a temporary headquarters until late 2015 **(JC: Is it moving back to Abidjan?)**. The collection contains close to 20,000 accessions, the vast majority of them (78%) _Oryza sativa_, Asian rice. Accessions of the African species _O. glaberrima_, however, which form 17% of the collections, are crucial to the breeding of varieties able to perform well under the conditions of sub-Saharan Africa.
The [genebank of AfricaRice][africarice] is in Cotonou, Benin, where the centre had a temporary headquarters until late 2015. The genebank will be moving back to M'be as part of AfricaRice's return to its permanent headquarters in Cote d'Ivoire. The collection contains more than 21,000 accessions, the vast majority of them (78%) _Oryza sativa_, Asian rice. Accessions of the African species _O. glaberrima_, however, which form 17% of the collections, are crucial to the breeding of varieties able to perform well under the conditions of sub-Saharan Africa.
AfricaRice has distributed about 66,000 samples over the past five years.
About 60% of the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces, and just under 40% are breeding and research lines. The remainder are mostly wild species.
The base collection at Cotonou, is in medium-term storage at 5-10°C. In addition, AfricaRice has three safety **(JC:From AfricaRice website; conflict with info in genesys)** duplicates in long term storage at around -20°C, in Ibadan, Nigeria, at Fort Collins, USA, and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway.
The base collection at Cotonou, is in medium-term storage at 5-10°C. In addition, AfricaRice has two safety duplicates in long term storage at around -20°C, at Fort Collins, USA, and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway. About 40% of the collection is safety duplicated.
The genebank, with its wide range of rice diversity, was a crucial element in the development of very succesful Nerica varieties. Much of the research at AfricaRice is focused on screening accessions for their ability to tolerate stresses such as heat and drought and pests and diseases, all of which are expected to increase under climate change.
The genebank, with its wide range of rice diversity, was a crucial element in the development of very successful Nerica varieties. Much of the research at AfricaRice is focused on screening accessions for their ability to tolerate stresses such as heat and drought and pests and diseases, all of which are expected to increase under climate change.
AfricaRice is spearheading regional characterisation and evaluation efforts throughout sub-Saharan Africa, working with the [INGER-Africa][africarice 2] network and national programmes throughout Africa. Other work includes the restoration of lost germplasm after civil strife, provision of conservation services to NARS, and training and capacity building.
AfricaRice is spearheading regional characterisation and evaluation efforts throughout sub-Saharan Africa, working 35 national programmes throughout Africa. Other work includes the restoration of lost germplasm after civil strife, provision of conservation services to NARS, and training and capacity building.
The AfricaRice Genebank Information System ([ARGIS][africarice 3]) holds information on more than 19,000 accessions and is publicly available.
The AfricaRice Genebank Information System ([ARGIS][africarice 2]) holds information on more than 19,000 accessions and is publicly available.
[africarice]: http://www.africarice.org/warda/genebank.asp
[africarice 2]: http://www.africarice.org/warda/inger.asp
[africarice 3]: http://eservices.africarice.org/argis/index.php
[africarice 2]: http://eservices.africarice.org/argis/index.php
Title: bioversity 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 26 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: bioversity 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 7 September 2016 Format: snippet
# Musa International Transit Centre, Bioversity International
# Bioversity International Musa Transit Centre
Bioversity's collection of bananas and plantains and their wild relatives (_Musa_ species) is kept at the International Transit Centre (ITC) at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The banana collection -- with more than 1500 accessions -- is the largest in the world. About 75% are traditional varieties or landraces and 15% are wild relatives. The remaining 10% is largely breeding and research material.
Accessions are kept [_in-vitro_][bel084-invitro], as 20 shoot cultures in continuous light at 16°C. Fresh cultures are taken each year, and after a few years the tissue culture is replaced with new material grown in the field and checked for genetic integrity. This prevents the accumulation of changes that can occur in plants kept in tissue culture for long periods of time.
In the 30 years since it was established, the ITC has distributed more than 17,000 samples to 109 countries.
Accessions are kept [_in-vitro_][bel084-invitro], as 20 shoot cultures in continuous light at 16°C. They are subcultured each year, and after a few years of maintenance the tissue cultures are replaced with new material grown in the greenhouse and checked for genetic integrity. This prevents the accumulation of changes that can occur in plants kept in tissue culture for long periods of time.
Accessions are also [cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen][bel084-cryo] at -196°C. This stops both the growth of plant cells and all biological deterioration, so accessions can be preserved indefinitely and resuscitated into fully viable banana plants. As further insurance, a safety duplicate set is being deposited for safe-keeping at the French research institute for development (IRD) in Montpellier, France.
The ITC is also a global hub for the safe movement of _Musa_ germplasm around the world. It has a system for indexing accessions for the presence of viruses and has researched protocols for cleaning up infected accessions. Only accessions that are virus free -- currently 55% of the collection -- are distributed, and work continues to ensure the entire collection is virus free.
The ITC is also a global hub for the safe movement of _Musa_ germplasm around the world. It has a system for indexing accessions for the presence of viruses and has researched protocols for cleaning up infected accessions. Only accessions that are virus free -- currently 55% of the collection -- are distributed, and work continues to ensure the entire collection is virus free and available for distribution.
Bioversity maintains the Musa Germplasm Information System ([MGIS][crop-diversity]) with access to information from 12 collections of banana.
Bioversity also maintains the *Musa* Germplasm Information System ([MGIS][crop-diversity]) with access to information from 12 national banana collections and morphological and molecular data on many of its accessions.
[bel084-cryo]: https://goo.gl/BkxslC
[bel084-invitro]: https://goo.gl/lJmrBV
......
Title: cimmyt 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: cimmyt 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 7 September 2016 Format: snippet
# International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
[CIMMYT's genebank][cimmyt] in Texcoco, Mexico, primarily houses collections of maize and wheat. The [wheat collection][adobe], with about 140,000 accessions from 140 countries, is the largest in the world. The [maize collection][adobe 2] of 28,000 accessions includes the world's largest collection of maize landraces.
[CIMMYT's genebank][cimmyt] near Texcoco, Mexico, primarily houses collections of maize and wheat. The [wheat collection][adobe], with about 140,000 accessions from 140 countries, is the largest in the world. The [maize collection][adobe 2] of 28,000 accessions includes the world's largest collection of maize landraces.
Total [holdings in Genesys][mex002] number more than 164,000\. Of these, 47% are advanced cultivars and breeders' lines, 34% are traditional cultivars or landraces, and almost 5% are wild relatives. About 120,000 samples have been distributed to 64 countries.
Total [holdings in Genesys][mex002] number more than 164,000. Of these, 47% are advanced cultivars and breeders' lines, 34% are traditional cultivars or landraces, and almost 5% are wild relatives. About 120,000 samples have been distributed to 64 countries.
A key role for the genebank, at CIMMYT as elsewhere, is to identify potentially valuable accessions to use in specific breeding programmes. Most recently, for example, breeders planted 918 landrace accessions to look for [resistance to a disease called tar spot complex][cimmyt 2], which is spreading through Mexico and the USA. Two varieties showed resistance. CIMMYT is now using those varieties to create stocks that breeders can use to produce high-performing resistant varieties.
A key role for the genebank, at CIMMYT as elsewhere, is to identify potentially valuable accessions to use in specific breeding programmes. Most recently, for example, breeders sourced material from the CIMMYT collections to look for [resistance to a maize disease called tar spot complex][cimmyt 2] and for resistance to wheat blast, an emerging wheat disease.
CIMMYT's accessions have helped to populate two important databases that tabulate molecular characterisation data for wheat and for maize.
About 37% of the CIMMYT collection **(JC: There is a large discrepancy between this figure, from Genesys, and the Crop Trust figure of 73%. I expect one of you has the numbers backwards. MO: There may be a mismatch between ACCENUMB in Genesys and SGSV)** is safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and there are additional safety duplicates in the United States. In addition, CIMMYT holds safety duplicates of material in the ICARDA genebank.
About 37% of the CIMMYT collection **(JC: There is a large discrepancy between this figure, from Genesys, and the Crop Trust figure of 73%. I expect one of you has the numbers backwards. MO: There may be a mismatch between ACCENUMB in Genesys and SGSV)** is safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and there are additional safety duplicates in the United States and Lebanon. In addition, CIMMYT holds safety duplicates for the ICARDA and CIAT genebanks.
The Genetic Resources Program, of which the genebank is a part, includes a Seed Health Unit to ensure that all seed meets international phytosanitary standards. A Data Management Unit ensures that data are open access and meet standards of best practice.
CIMMYT's Genetic Resources Program, of which the maize and wheat collections are a part, includes a Seed Health Unit to ensure that all seed meets international phytosanitary standards. A Data Management Unit ensures that data are open access and meet standards of best practice and supports the implementation of [GRIN Global][grin] at CIMMYT and other CGIAR genebanks. The CIMMYT genebank is ISO9001:2008 certified, and the Seed Health Unit is ISO17025 accredited.
[adobe]: https://spark.adobe.com/page/QXtG2/
[adobe 2]: https://spark.adobe.com/page/bKgfw/
[cimmyt]: http://www.cimmyt.org/germplasm-bank/
[cimmyt 2]: http://www.cimmyt.org/ancient-maize-varieties-provide-modern-solution-to-tar-spot-complex/
[grin]: http://www.grin-global.org
[mex002]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/MEX002/data
Title: icarda 03 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: icarda 04 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA)
[ICARDA][icarda2] holds almost [150,000 accessions][syr002], largely of its mandate crops -- [barley][syr002-barley], [wheat][syr002-wheat], food legumes and forage legumes -- and the _Rhizobium_ bacteria that enable legumes to fix nitrogen. About 21% of accessions are wild relatives, which are likely to [become increasingly important as sources of the genetic diversity][cwrdiversity] needed to cope with challenges such as climate change. Just under 5% are traditional varieties or landraces.
[ICARDA][icarda2] holds almost [150,000 accessions][syr002], largely of its mandate crops -- [barley][syr002-barley], [wheat][syr002-wheat], food legumes, forage legumes and temperate range species -- and 1,400 strains of the _Rhizobium_ bacteria that enable legumes to fix nitrogen. About 21% of accessions are wild relatives, which are likely to [become increasingly important as sources of the genetic diversity][cwrdiversity] needed to cope with challenges such as climate change. More than 65% are traditional varieties or landraces.
Researchers at ICARDA and in the global community use the genebank accessions in research and to develop new, [improved varieties][icarda]. Over the past decade, the genebank distributed more than 200,000 samples to 63 countries.
Researchers at ICARDA and in the global community use the genebank accessions in research and to develop new, [improved varieties][icarda]. Over the past decade, the genebank distributed more than 200,000 samples to 65 countries.
Scientists at ICARDA have pioneered a new approach to the discovery of valuable genetic traits, known as Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy. [FIGS][icarda] improves the use of genetic resources by pre-selecting those accessions that are most likely to contain the traits of interest to solve a particular breeding challenge, such as tolerance to heat or resistance to a specific disease.
The genebank was established in 1983, at ICARDA's headquarters in Aleppo, Syria. Even before the unrest in Syria, the genebank had begun to store safety duplicates of its collections not only at the Svalbard Seed Vault but also at collaborating genebanks around the world. The value of these duplicate collections became obvious when the Syrian uprising threatened the very existence of the genebank.
The genebank was established in 1983, at ICARDA's headquarters in Aleppo, Syria. Even before the unrest in Syria, the genebank had begun to store safety duplicates of its collections not only at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault but also at collaborating genebanks around the world. The value of these duplicate collections became obvious when the Syrian uprising threatened the very existence of the genebank.
In late 2015 ICARDA was able to retrieve many of its accessions from Svalbard to establish new facilities in Lebanon and Morocco. For ICARDA's efforts in protecting the genebank and its accessions, the Gregor Mendel Foundation awarded the genebank its [Gregor Mendel Innovation Prize][gregor-mendel-stiftung] in March 2015.
In late 2015 ICARDA started to retrieve many of its accessions from Svalbard to be restored in new genebank facilities in Lebanon and Morocco. For ICARDA's efforts in protecting the genebank and its accessions, the Gregor Mendel Foundation awarded the genebank its [Gregor Mendel Innovation Prize][gregor-mendel-stiftung] in March 2015.
[cwrdiversity]: http://www.cwrdiversity.org
[gregor-mendel-stiftung]: http://www.gregor-mendel-stiftung.de/veranstaltungen/innovationspreis/preistraeger-2015/
......
Title: icrisat 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: icrisat 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Centre for Research on Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
# International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
ICRISAT focuses on pulses and cereals, including millets, that are important for food security in the semi-arid areas of the world. The [main genebank collection][icrisat] is at the centre's headquarters in Hyderabad, India, and there are additional facilities in Niger, Kenya and Zimbabwe.
ICRISAT focuses on legumes and cereals, including millets, that are important for food security in the semi-arid areas of the world. The [main genebank collection][icrisat] is at the centre's headquarters in Hyderabad, India, and there are three regional genebanks in Kenya, Niger and Zimbabwe.
More than [123,000 accessions are listed in Genesys][ind002]. Almost 50,000 of these are pulses of various kinds, mostly chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, and their wild relatives. [Sorghum][ind002-sorghum] is the most common single species, with 39,000 accessions. There are about 33,000 accessions of various millets, including [almost 23,000 of pearl millet][ind002-pearlmillet].
More than [124,000 accessions are listed in Genesys][ind002]. Almost 50,000 of these are three legumes: chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, and their wild relatives. [Sorghum][ind002-sorghum] is the most common single genus, with 39,000 accessions. There are about 34,000 accessions of various millets, including [more than 23,000 of pearl millet][ind002-pearlmillet].
Traditional cultivars and landraces make up the bulk of the holdings (80%) and about 14% are breeding and research lines. About 2% are wild relatives.
Traditional cultivars and landraces make up the bulk of the holdings (82%) and about 16% are breeding and research lines. About 2% are wild relatives.
ICRISAT helped to develop the idea of mini-core collections, a representative sample of about 1% of the accessions of a species, selected to help breeders find the traits they are interested in. One example is the [groundnut mini-core collection][ind002-gnut-mini].
ICRISAT scientists developed the idea of mini-core collections, a representative sample of about 1% of the accessions of a species, selected to help breeders to find the traits they are interested in. There are mini-core collections of all ICRISAT mandate crops. One example is the [groundnut mini-core collection][ind002-gnut-mini], which consists of only 184 accessions that include traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and for good agronomic and nutritional status.
The ICRISAT genebank has distributed more than 1.4 million samples of 106,000 accessions to 145 countries. ICRISAT accessions are part of the pedigree of more than 800 improved varieties released by national partners. ICRISAT has itself released several improved varieties that make use of genebank accessions, including pearl millets rich in micronutrients.
The ICRISAT genebank has distributed more than 1.4 million samples of 106,000 accessions to 147 countries. ICRISAT accessions are part of the pedigree of more than 800 improved varieties released by national partners. ICRISAT has itself released several improved varieties that make use of genebank accessions, including pearl millets rich in micronutrients.
About [83% of the collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ind002-sgsv], with additional smaller safety duplicates in Niger and at ICARDA.
About [88% of the collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ind002-sgsv], with additional smaller safety duplicates in Niger and at ICARDA.
[icrisat]: http://www.icrisat.org/gene-bank/
[ind002]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/IND002/data
......
Title: iita 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: iita 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
# International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
The [Genetic Resources Centre][iita] of IITA in Ibadan, Nigeria, maintains crops important for sub-Saharan Africa: banana, cassava and yam as tissue culture and field plants and bambara groundnut, cowpea, maize and sorghum, and a few miscellaneous legumes, as seed. Details of [about 31,000 accessions][nga039] are available through Genesys.
The [Genetic Resources Centre][iita] of IITA in Ibadan, Nigeria, maintains crops important for sub-Saharan Africa: banana, cassava and yam in the field and *in vitro*; African yam bean, Bambara groundnut, cowpea, maize, sorghum and soybean, and some other legumes, as seed. Details of [about 31,000 accessions][nga039] are available through Genesys.
Cowpea accounts for 16,000 accessions, with about 2000 each of bambara groundnut and soybean and 1500 of maize. The collection of clonal crops includes almost 4000 accessions of cassava, just over 2000 of yam and 283 of banana. More than half of all the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces and 1.5% are known to be wild relatives.
Cowpea accounts for 16,000 accessions, with about 2000 each of Bambara groundnut and soybean and 1500 of maize. The collection of clonal crops includes almost 4000 accessions of cassava, just over 4000 of yam and 283 of banana. More than half of all the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces and 1.5% are known to be wild relatives.
Seed crops are kept in conventional genebank storage with medium-term and long-term facilities. Clonal crops are kept in [field genebanks][nga039-field] and [_in vitro_ tissue cultures][nga039-invitro] for short and medium term storage, with an increasing number being brought into [cryopreservation][nga039-cryo] for long-term storage.
......
Title: ilri 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: ilri 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
[ILRI's genebank][ilri], which is responsible for forages and some dual-purpose crops, is housed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The collection is perhaps the most diverse in Genesys. The collection holds more than 1000 species and the 20 most numerous species account for well under a third (29%) of more than 20,000 accessions. Not surprisingly, the vast majority of the accessions (97%) are wild species rather than cultivars or landraces.
[ILRI's genebank][ilri], which is responsible for forages and some dual-purpose crops, is housed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The collection is perhaps the most taxonomically diverse in Genesys. The collection holds more than 1000 species and the 20 most numerous species account for well under a third (29%) of more than 20,000 accessions. Not surprisingly, the vast majority of the accessions (97%) are wild species rather than cultivars or landraces.
The genebank has distributed more than 10,000 samples to 40 countries. About 900 accessions are regenerated and multiplied each year.
Characterization of forages at ILRI looks in detail at phenotypical variation, particularly in nutritional traits, and resistance to pests and diseases. The goal is to identify accessions that offer better performance for use as part of sustainable farming systems and as best bets for further evaluation and possible improvement.
Characterization of forages at ILRI looks in detail at phenotypic variation, particularly in nutritional traits, and resistance to pests and diseases. The goal is to identify accessions that offer better performance for use as part of sustainable farming systems and as best bets for further evaluation and possible improvement.
To promote the use of forages throughout sub-Saharan Africa, ILRI's genebank operates a [Herbage Seed Unit][ilri 2] that offers training to national scientists and technicians and provides starter quantities of selected seed for multiplication and distribution.
ILRI and CIAT created the [Tropical Forages Database][tropicalforages], an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages. ILRI also maintains [a searchable database of forage diversity][156].
ILRI and CIAT created the [Tropical Forages Database][tropicalforages], an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages. ILRI is currently developing a new online searchable database which should be available in early 2017.
A few (6.6%) of the accessions are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, with other safety duplicates held in Australia, the United Kingdom and at CIAT in Colombia.
More than a quarter (28.6%) of the accessions are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, with other safety duplicates held in Australia, the United Kingdom and at CIAT in Colombia.
[156]: http://192.156.137.110/forage/frgdsearch.asp
[ilri]: http://www.ilri.org/node/1750
[ilri 2]: http://www.ilri.org/node/1753
[tropicalforages]: http://www.tropicalforages.info
Markdown is supported
0% or .
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment