Commit ec5eca3c authored by Matija Obreza's avatar Matija Obreza
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Added links to Genesys and removed criticmarkup-specific syntax

parent 53355314
# Genebanks
## Biodiversity in Trust
Eleven member institutes of the CGIAR Consortium maintain genebanks. Collectively, these form the largest store of agricultural biodiversity in the world. More than 710,000 accessions range from unimproved wild relatives of crops through to elite breeding lines developed by CGIAR scientists. CGIAR genebanks also maintain tree species and bacteria. Some accessions are kept as seeds, others in field genebanks and yet others in test-tube, or _in-vitro_, collections.
Over the past 10 years, CGIAR genebanks have [distributed more than a million samples][cgiar] to plant breeders and crop researchers. {==Most recent figure I could find.==} You can [use GENESYS to order material][genesys-pgr] from CGIAR and other genebanks.
Over the past 10 years, CGIAR genebanks have [distributed more than a million samples][cgiar] to plant breeders and crop researchers. You can [use Genesys to order material][genesys-pgr] from CGIAR and other genebanks.
The accessions in the CGIAR genebanks are international public goods that the genebanks make available under conditions set out in the [International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture][planttreaty]. In essence, recipients of material agree that they will not further restrict the availability of such material and, if they do restrict access to new varieties derived from genebank material, they will pay a certain percentage into a common fund.
......@@ -19,3 +19,4 @@ The CGIAR collections will not in and of themselves increase food security or en
[cipotato]: http://cipotato.org/press_release/return-of-potatoes-from-cip-to-andean-farmers-proves-critical-for-climate-adaptation/
[genesys-pgr]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/content/help/how-to-use-genesys
[planttreaty]: http://www.planttreaty.org/
[genesys-cgiar]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/org/CGIAR
Title: africarice 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 26 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: africarice 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 26 August 2016 Format: snippet
# Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
The [genebank of AfricaRice][africarice] is in Cotonou, Benin, where the centre had a temporary headquarters until late {==2015==}{>>Is it moving back to Abidjan?JC<<}. The collection contains close to 20,000 accessions, the vast majority of them (78%) _Oryza sativa_, Asian rice. Accessions of the African species _O. glaberrima_, however, which form 17% of the collections, are crucial to the breeding of varieties able to perform well under the conditions of sub-Saharan Africa.
The [genebank of AfricaRice][africarice] is in Cotonou, Benin, where the centre had a temporary headquarters until late 2015 **(JC: Is it moving back to Abidjan?)**. The collection contains close to 20,000 accessions, the vast majority of them (78%) _Oryza sativa_, Asian rice. Accessions of the African species _O. glaberrima_, however, which form 17% of the collections, are crucial to the breeding of varieties able to perform well under the conditions of sub-Saharan Africa.
About 60% of the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces, and just under 40% are breeding and research lines. The remainder are mostly wild species.
The base collection at Cotonou, is in medium-term storage at 5-10°C. In addition, AfricaRice has three {==complete==}{>>From AfricaRice website; conflict with info in genesys. JC<<} duplicates in long term storage at around -20°C, in Ibadan, Nigeria, at Fort Collins, USA, and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway.
The base collection at Cotonou, is in medium-term storage at 5-10°C. In addition, AfricaRice has three safety **(JC:From AfricaRice website; conflict with info in genesys)** duplicates in long term storage at around -20°C, in Ibadan, Nigeria, at Fort Collins, USA, and in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault in Norway.
The genebank, with its wide range of rice diversity, was a crucial element in the development of very succesful Nerica varieties. Much of the research at AfricaRice is focused on screening accessions for their ability to tolerate stresses such as heat and drought and pests and diseases, all of which are expected to increase under climate change.
......
Title: bioversity 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 26 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: bioversity 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 26 August 2016 Format: snippet
# Bioversity International
# Musa International Transit Centre, Bioversity International
Bioversity's collection of bananas and plantains and their wild relatives (_Musa_ species) is kept at the International Transit Centre (ITC) at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The collection -- with more than 1500 accessions -- is the largest in the world. About 75% are traditional varieties or landraces and 15% are wild relatives. The remaining 10% is largely breeding and research material.
Bioversity's collection of bananas and plantains and their wild relatives (_Musa_ species) is kept at the International Transit Centre (ITC) at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The banana collection -- with more than 1500 accessions -- is the largest in the world. About 75% are traditional varieties or landraces and 15% are wild relatives. The remaining 10% is largely breeding and research material.
Accessions are kept *in-vitro*, as 20 shoot cultures in continuous light at 16°C. Fresh cultures are taken each year, and after a few years the tissue culture is replaced with new material grown in the field and checked for genetic integrity. This prevents the accumulation of changes that can occur in plants kept in tissue culture for long periods of time.
Accessions are kept [_in-vitro_][bel084-invitro], as 20 shoot cultures in continuous light at 16°C. Fresh cultures are taken each year, and after a few years the tissue culture is replaced with new material grown in the field and checked for genetic integrity. This prevents the accumulation of changes that can occur in plants kept in tissue culture for long periods of time.
Accessions are also cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. This stops both the growth of plant cells and all biological deterioration, so accessions can be preserved indefinitely and resuscitated into fully viable banana plants. As further insurance, a safety duplicate set is being deposited for safe-keeping at the French research institute for development (IRD) in Montpellier, France.
Accessions are also [cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen][bel084-cryo] at -196°C. This stops both the growth of plant cells and all biological deterioration, so accessions can be preserved indefinitely and resuscitated into fully viable banana plants. As further insurance, a safety duplicate set is being deposited for safe-keeping at the French research institute for development (IRD) in Montpellier, France.
The ITC is also a global hub for the safe movement of _Musa_ germplasm around the world. It has a system for indexing accessions for the presence of viruses and has researched protocols for cleaning up infected accessions. Only accessions that are virus free -- currently 55% of the collection -- are distributed, and work continues to ensure the entire collection is virus free.
Bioversity maintains the Musa Germplasm Information System ([MGIS][crop-diversity]) with access to information from 12 collections of banana.
[bel084-cryo]: https://goo.gl/BkxslC
[bel084-invitro]: https://goo.gl/lJmrBV
[crop-diversity]: http://www.crop-diversity.org/mgis/
Title: ciat 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 29 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: ciat 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
[CIAT's genebank][ciat] in Cali, Colombia, lists almost 65,000 accessions in Genesys. The vast majority are seed crops, mainly beans, but CIAT also has a mandate to conserve cassava and tropical forages, and those too are held in the genebank. Almost 2000 of the accessions are wild relatives. Since 1980 CIAT has distributed more than 90,000 samples of 13,363 accessions to 110 countries.
[CIAT's genebank][ciat] in Cali, Colombia, lists almost 65,000 accessions in Genesys. The vast majority are seed crops, mainly [beans][col003-beans], but CIAT also has a mandate to conserve [cassava][col003-cassava] and tropical forages, and those too are held in the genebank. Almost 2000 of the accessions are wild relatives. Since 1980 CIAT has distributed more than 90,000 samples of 13,363 accessions to 110 countries.
The CIAT bean collection is the world's largest and most diverse, with more than 44,000 accessions. Since it started, the collection has sent more than 437,000 samples of 37,368 accession to recipients in 105 countries. Accessions are contributing to the breeding of more nutritious and more resilient varieties.
The CIAT [bean collection][col003-beans] is the world's largest and most diverse, with more than 44,000 accessions. Since it started, the collection has sent more than 437,000 samples of 37,368 accession to recipients in 105 countries. Accessions are contributing to the breeding of more nutritious and more resilient varieties.
Cassava is represented by 6592 accessions (883 of which are provided by 33 of the 98 wild relative species of *Manihot*) stored as microplants in tissue culture. This collection too is considered a global leader because of the number of accessions, their diversity and the geographic range they represent. More than 40,000 samples have been distributed, guaranteed free of the three major viruses thanks to the work of the germplasm health laboratory at CIAT. The laboratory also ensures that seeds of beans and tropical forages are free of pests and diseases.
Cassava is represented by [6592 accessions][col003-cassava] (883 of which are provided by 33 of the 98 wild relative species of _Manihot_) stored as microplants in tissue culture. This collection too is considered a global leader because of the number of accessions, their diversity and the geographic range they represent. More than 40,000 samples have been distributed, guaranteed free of the three major viruses thanks to the work of the germplasm health laboratory at CIAT. The laboratory also ensures that seeds of beans and tropical forages are free of pests and diseases.
The tropical forage collection is also a world leader, with more than 23,000 accessions of 700 species. CIAT and ILRI created the [Tropical Forages Database](http://www.tropicalforages.info), an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages.
Two-thirds of the CIAT seed collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.
[ciat]: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/main.do?language=en
[col003-beans]: https://goo.gl/O0uRTr
[col003-cassava]: https://goo.gl/izrKO1
Title: cimmyt 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 31 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: cimmyt 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
[CIMMYT's genebank][cimmyt] in Texcoco, Mexico, primarily houses collections of maize and wheat. The [wheat collection][adobe], with about 140,000 accessions from 140 countries, is the largest in the world. The [maize collection][adobe 2] of 28,000 accessions includes the world's largest collection of maize landraces.
Total holdings in Genesys number more than 164,000. Of these, 47% are advanced cultivars and breeders' lines, 34% are traditional cultivars or landraces, and almost 5% are wild relatives. About 120,000 samples have been distributed to 64 countries.
Total [holdings in Genesys][mex002] number more than 164,000\. Of these, 47% are advanced cultivars and breeders' lines, 34% are traditional cultivars or landraces, and almost 5% are wild relatives. About 120,000 samples have been distributed to 64 countries.
A key role for the genebank, at CIMMYT as elsewhere, is to identify potentially valuable accessions to use in specific breeding programmes. Most recently, for example, breeders planted 918 landrace accessions to look for [resistance to a disease called tar spot complex][cimmyt 2], which is spreading through Mexico and the USA. Two varieties showed resistance. CIMMYT is now using those varieties to create stocks that breeders can use to produce high-performing resistant varieties.
CIMMYT's accessions have helped to populate two important databases that tabulate molecular characterisation data for wheat and for maize.
About {==37% of the CIMMYT collection==}{>>There is a large discrepancy between this figure, from Genesys, and the Crop Trust figure of 73%. I expect one of you has the numbers backwards. JC<<} is safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and there are additional safety duplicates in the United States. In addition, CIMMYT holds safety duplicates of material in the ICARDA genebank.
About 37% of the CIMMYT collection **(JC: There is a large discrepancy between this figure, from Genesys, and the Crop Trust figure of 73%. I expect one of you has the numbers backwards. MO: There may be a mismatch between ACCENUMB in Genesys and SGSV)** is safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and there are additional safety duplicates in the United States. In addition, CIMMYT holds safety duplicates of material in the ICARDA genebank.
The Genetic Resources Program, of which the genebank is a part, includes a Seed Health Unit to ensure that all seed meets international phytosanitary standards. A Data Management Unit ensures that data are open access and meet standards of best practice.
......@@ -21,3 +18,4 @@ The Genetic Resources Program, of which the genebank is a part, includes a Seed
[adobe 2]: https://spark.adobe.com/page/bKgfw/
[cimmyt]: http://www.cimmyt.org/germplasm-bank/
[cimmyt 2]: http://www.cimmyt.org/ancient-maize-varieties-provide-modern-solution-to-tar-spot-complex/
[mex002]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/MEX002/data
Title: cip 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 31 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: cip 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Potato Center (CIP)
The [CIP genebank][cipotato] in Lima, Peru, is responsible for potatoes and sweetpotatoes and other Andean roots and tubers. The entire collection at CIP is about 16,000 accessions. Genesys lists the 3000 accessions maintained *in vitro*, 2000 of potato and 1000 of sweet potato. About 63% of these are breeding material or advanced cultivars, while 37% are traditional cultivars or landraces.
The [CIP genebank][cipotato] in Lima, Peru, is responsible for potatoes and sweetpotatoes and other Andean roots and tubers. The entire collection at CIP is about 16,000 accessions. Genesys lists the [3000 accessions maintained _in vitro_][per001-invitro], 2000 of potato and 1000 of sweet potato. About 63% of these are breeding material or advanced cultivars, while 37% are traditional cultivars or landraces.
The CIP collection is the world's largest *in vitro* genebank. It includes more than 80% of the worlds potato and sweetpotato landraces and more than 80% of the known species of wild potato. The CIP genebank also maintains more than 1500 accessions of Andean root and tuber crops. About 15,000 samples have been distributed to 94 countries.
The CIP collection is the world's largest _in vitro_ genebank. It includes more than 80% of the world's potato and sweetpotato landraces and more than 80% of the known species of wild potato. The CIP genebank also maintains more than 1500 accessions of Andean root and tuber crops. About 15,000 samples have been distributed to 94 countries.
Accessions are kept as clonal collections in field and *in vitro* (many cryopreserved) and as seeds. CIP is also working with farmers and local organizations in the Andes to conserve crops in farmers' fields. Part of that effort has involved giving varieties back to communities that had lost them. As researchers monitor the changes that take place as farmers grow and adapt these varieties, they also get the opportunity to discover and incorporate new varieties in the collection.
Accessions are kept as clonal collections in field and _in vitro_ (many cryopreserved) and as seeds. CIP is also working with farmers and local organizations in the Andes to conserve crops in farmers' fields. Part of that effort has involved giving varieties back to communities that had lost them. As researchers monitor the changes that take place as farmers grow and adapt these varieties, they also get the opportunity to discover and incorporate new varieties in the collection.
Material from the CIP genebank was instrumental in breeding the [orange-fleshed sweet potatoes][cipotato 2] that are currently improving nutrition in much of sub-Saharan Africa. These varieties are naturally rich in pre-cursors to vitamin A, and as part of the daily diet can prevent vitamin A deficiency.
A unit for the detection and elimination of pathogens enables the CIP genebank to distribute healthy material. CIP was the first genebank to be accredited by the International Standards Organization (ISO 17025) for safe and secure germplasm movement.
About {==82% of CIP's accessions==}{>>Again, huge discrepancy with 45% figure on Crop Trust website. JC<<} are safety duplicated in the form of true seed in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Additional safety duplicates are in Brazil and Peru and at CIAT in Colombia.
About 82% of CIP's accessions **(JC: Discrepancy with 45% figure on Crop Trust website.)** are safety duplicated in the form of [true seed in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][per001-sgsv]. Additional safety duplicates are in Brazil and Peru and at CIAT in Colombia.
[cipotato]: http://cipotato.org/genebank
[cipotato 2]: http://cipotato.org/sweetpotato/nutrition-2/
[per001-invitro]: https://goo.gl/FNn5cO
[per001-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/QY851a
Title: icarda 03
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 29 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: icarda 03 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA)
[ICARDA][icarda2] holds almost 150,000 accessions, largely of its mandate crops -- barley, wheat, food legumes and forage legumes -- and the _Rhizobium_ bacteria that enable legumes to fix nitrogen. About 21% of accessions are wild relatives, which are likely to [become increasingly important as sources of the genetic diversity][link to CWR project] needed to cope with challenges such as climate change. Just under 5% are traditional varieties or landraces.
[ICARDA][icarda2] holds almost [150,000 accessions][syr002], largely of its mandate crops -- [barley][syr002-barley], [wheat][syr002-wheat], food legumes and forage legumes -- and the _Rhizobium_ bacteria that enable legumes to fix nitrogen. About 21% of accessions are wild relatives, which are likely to [become increasingly important as sources of the genetic diversity][cwrdiversity] needed to cope with challenges such as climate change. Just under 5% are traditional varieties or landraces.
Researchers at ICARDA and in the global community use the genebank accessions in research and to develop new, [improved varieties][icarda]. Over the past decade, the genebank distributed more than 200,000 samples to 63 countries.
Scientists at ICARDA have pioneered a new approach to the discovery of valuable genetic traits, known as Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy. [FIGS][ICARDA] improves the use of genetic resources by pre-selecting those accessions that are most likely to contain the traits of interest to solve a particular breeding challenge, such as tolerance to heat or resistance to a specific disease.
Scientists at ICARDA have pioneered a new approach to the discovery of valuable genetic traits, known as Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy. [FIGS][icarda] improves the use of genetic resources by pre-selecting those accessions that are most likely to contain the traits of interest to solve a particular breeding challenge, such as tolerance to heat or resistance to a specific disease.
The genebank was established in 1983, at ICARDA's headquarters in Aleppo, Syria. Even before the unrest in Syria, the genebank had begun to store safety duplicates of its collections not only at the Svalbard Seed Vault but also at collaborating genebanks around the world. The value of these duplicate collections became obvious when the Syrian uprising threatened the very existence of the genebank.
In late 2015 ICARDA was able to retrieve many of its accessions from Svalbard to establish new facilities in Lebanon and Morocco. For ICARDA's efforts in protecting the genebank and its accessions, the Gregor Mendel Foundation awarded the genebank its [Gregor Mendel Innovation Prize][gregor-mendel-stiftung] in March 2015.
[icarda2]: http://www.icarda.org/research-sub/biodiversity-and-its-utilization
[ICARDA]: http://figs.ICARDA.org/figs-use
[cwrdiversity]: http://www.cwrdiversity.org
[gregor-mendel-stiftung]: http://www.gregor-mendel-stiftung.de/veranstaltungen/innovationspreis/preistraeger-2015/
[icarda]: http://www.icarda.org/update/two-new-malt-barley-varieties-released-game-changing-development-ethiopia
[icarda2]: http://www.icarda.org/research-sub/biodiversity-and-its-utilization
[syr002]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/SYR002/data
[syr002-barley]: https://goo.gl/PZxA1M
[syr002-wheat]: https://goo.gl/Xehbo3
Title: icraf 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 31 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: icraf 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
# World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF)
The [ICRAF genebank][worldagroforestry] in Nairobi, Kenya, conserves the diversity of a wide range of agroforestry tree species, most of which are a source of food or forage. Accessions are stored as seed and in field genebanks in the regions where ICRAF works.
The seed genebank currently holds almost 5400 accessions of about 150 species. Of these, information on 4300 is available through Genesys. Seed is maintained in an active collection at 4°C, and for long-term conservation ICRAF works with the Millennium Seed Bank in the United Kingdom and the Kunming Institute of Botany in China.
The seed genebank currently holds almost 5400 accessions of about 150 species. Of these, [information on 4300][ken056] is available through Genesys. Seed is maintained in an active collection at 4°C, and for long-term conservation ICRAF works with the Millennium Seed Bank in the United Kingdom and the Kunming Institute of Botany in China.
Conservation of tree species poses special difficulties, including the large number of genera -- each with specific requirements -- long generation times and seeds that often cannot be dried for conventional storage. As a result, ICRAF has to maintain decentralised field genebanks. These field genebanks both conserve diversity and offer a source of sexual and clonal reproductive material. The field genebanks are also research sites for evaluation and characterisation. Overall, 60 diverse tree and shrub species are maintained in field genebanks spread across 16 countries.
The seed and field genebank supply germplasm for ICRAF's research to domesticate some species, and to others wanting access to agroforestry plant genetic resources.
Just over {==3% of the seed accessions==}{>>Discrepancy with Crop Trust figure of 10% JC<<} are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. About 8% of the accessions are also safety duplicated in China.
Just over 3% of the seed accessions **(JC: Discrepancy with Crop Trust figure of 10%)** are [safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ken059-sgsv]. About 8% of the accessions are also safety duplicated in China.
A database -- the [Agroforestry Species Switchboard][worldagroforestry 2] -- gives access to "information sources to support tree research and development activities"
[ken056]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/KEN056/data
[ken059-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/zupVlM
[worldagroforestry]: http://www.worldagroforestry.org/products/grunew/
[worldagroforestry 2]: http://www.worldagroforestry.org/products/switchboard/index.php/name_like/Acacia/
Title: icrisat 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 29 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: icrisat 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 29 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Centre for Research on Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
ICRISAT focuses on pulses and cereals, including millets, that are important for food security in the semi-arid areas of the world. The [main genebank collection][icrisat] is at the centre's headquarters in Hyderabad, India, and there are additional facilities in Niger, Kenya and Zimbabwe.
More than 123,000 accessions are listed in Genesys. Almost 50,000 of these are pulses of various kinds, mostly chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, and their wild relatives. Sorghum is the most common single species, with 39,000 accessions. There are about 33,000 accessions of various millets, including almost 23,000 of pearl millet.
More than [123,000 accessions are listed in Genesys][ind002]. Almost 50,000 of these are pulses of various kinds, mostly chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, and their wild relatives. [Sorghum][ind002-sorghum] is the most common single species, with 39,000 accessions. There are about 33,000 accessions of various millets, including [almost 23,000 of pearl millet][ind002-pearlmillet].
Traditional cultivars and landraces make up the bulk of the holdings (80%) and about 14% are breeding and research lines. About 2% are wild relatives.
ICRISAT helped to develop the idea of mini-core collections, a representative sample of about 1% of the accessions of a species, selected to help breeders find the traits they are interested in.
ICRISAT helped to develop the idea of mini-core collections, a representative sample of about 1% of the accessions of a species, selected to help breeders find the traits they are interested in. One example is the [groundnut mini-core collection][ind002-gnut-mini].
The ICRISAT genebank has distributed more than 1.4 million samples of 106,000 accessions to 145 countries. ICRISAT accessions are part of the pedigree of more than 800 improved varieties released by national partners. ICRISAT has itself released several improved varieties that make use of genebank accessions, including pearl millets rich in micronutrients.
About 83% of the collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, with additional smaller safety duplicates in Niger and at ICARDA.
About [83% of the collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ind002-sgsv], with additional smaller safety duplicates in Niger and at ICARDA.
[icrisat]: http://www.icrisat.org/gene-bank/
[ind002]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/IND002/data
[ind002-gnut-mini]: https://goo.gl/lmk4iU
[ind002-pearlmillet]: https://goo.gl/jmNieY
[ind002-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/XVto0I
[ind002-sorghum]: https://goo.gl/ygjnP5
Title: iita 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 30 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: iita 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
The [Genetic Resources Centre][iita] of IITA in Ibadan, Nigeria, maintains crops important for sub-Saharan Africa: banana, cassava and yam as tissue culture and field plants and bambara groundnut, cowpea, maize and sorghum, and a few miscellaneous legumes, as seed. Details of about 31,000 accessions are available through Genesys.
The [Genetic Resources Centre][iita] of IITA in Ibadan, Nigeria, maintains crops important for sub-Saharan Africa: banana, cassava and yam as tissue culture and field plants and bambara groundnut, cowpea, maize and sorghum, and a few miscellaneous legumes, as seed. Details of [about 31,000 accessions][nga039] are available through Genesys.
Cowpea accounts for 16,000 accessions, with about 2000 each of bambara groundnut and soybean and 1500 of maize. The collection of clonal crops includes almost 4000 accessions of cassava, just over 2000 of yam and 283 of banana. More than half of all the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces and 1.5% are known to be wild relatives.
Seed crops are kept in conventional genebank storage with medium-term and long-term facilities. Clonal crops are kept in field genebanks and *in vitro* tissue cultures for short and medium term storage, with an increasing number being brought into cryopreservation for long-term storage.
Seed crops are kept in conventional genebank storage with medium-term and long-term facilities. Clonal crops are kept in [field genebanks][nga039-field] and [_in vitro_ tissue cultures][nga039-invitro] for short and medium term storage, with an increasing number being brought into [cryopreservation][nga039-cryo] for long-term storage.
About 60% of the accessions are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Smaller safety duplicates are held at the Saskatoon Research Centre in Canada and at CIMMYT in Mexico.
About [60% of the accessions are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][nga039-sgsv]. Smaller safety duplicates are held at the Saskatoon Research Centre in Canada and at CIMMYT in Mexico.
[iita]: http://www.iita.org/genetic-resources
[nga039]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/NGA039/data
[nga039-cryo]: https://goo.gl/ui26k6
[nga039-field]: https://goo.gl/f02iJk
[nga039-invitro]: https://goo.gl/dF0nGs
[nga039-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/Bt9EMV
Title: ilri 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 30 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: ilri 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 30 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
......@@ -13,7 +10,7 @@ Characterization of forages at ILRI looks in detail at phenotypical variation, p
To promote the use of forages throughout sub-Saharan Africa, ILRI's genebank operates a [Herbage Seed Unit][ilri 2] that offers training to national scientists and technicians and provides starter quantities of selected seed for multiplication and distribution.
ILRI and CIAT created the [Tropical Forages Database][tropicalforages], an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages. ILRI also maintains [a searchable local database of forage diversity][156].
ILRI and CIAT created the [Tropical Forages Database][tropicalforages], an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages. ILRI also maintains [a searchable database of forage diversity][156].
A few (6.6%) of the accessions are safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, with other safety duplicates held in Australia, the United Kingdom and at CIAT in Colombia.
......
Title: irri 01
Author: Jeremy Cherfas
Date: 31 August 2016
Format: snippet
Title: irri 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
# International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
The [IRRI genebank][irri] in Los Baños, Philippines, holds the world's largest collection of rice diversity, with more than 127,000 accessions of cultivated rice and wild relatives. About 38% of the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces, 11% are breeding materials or advanced cultivars and 3% are wild relatives. (Most of the rest are "not classified".) IRRI has distributed about 130,000 samples to 75 countries.
The [IRRI genebank][irri] in Los Baños, Philippines, holds the world's largest collection of rice diversity, with more than [127,000 accessions of cultivated rice and wild relatives][phl001]. About 38% of the accessions are traditional cultivars or landraces, 11% are breeding materials or advanced cultivars and 3% are wild relatives. (Most of the rest are "not classified".) IRRI has distributed about 130,000 samples to 75 countries.
Genebank accessions have been instrumental in creating all of the high-yielding rice varieties released by IRRI over the years. They have also been invaluable to rice breeders in national programmes. A [recent study][cgiar] found that 90% of the varieties released by national programmes included at least one IRRI accession in their pedigree.
All accessions are maintained in an active collection at 2-4°C and at -20°C for long-term storage. Seed is tested regularly for viability and regenerated if the germination rate falls below 8%. IRRI is also researching ways to extend the longevity of seeds in storage and to predict viability more accurately.
Evaluation of the accessions for phenotypical and molecular characteristics is an important genebank activity. Data are shared through Genesys and through the International Rice Genebank Collection Information System ([IRGCIS][irgcis]). IRRI accessions and scientists also played a large part in the effort to [sequence 3000 rice genomes][irri 2], and IRRI now leads the [International Rice Informatics Consortium][irri 3], which aims to sequence and make data available on as much rice diversity as possible.
Evaluation of the accessions for phenotypical and molecular characteristics is an important genebank activity. Data are shared through Genesys and through the International Rice Genebank Collection Information System ([IRGCIS]). IRRI accessions and scientists also played a large part in the effort to [sequence 3000 rice genomes][irri 2], and IRRI now leads the [International Rice Informatics Consortium][irri 3], which aims to sequence and make data available on as much rice diversity as possible.
More than 91% of the accessions at IRRI are safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault and in the USA and elsewhere.
More than 91% of the accessions at IRRI are [safety duplicated in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][phl001-sgsv] and in the USA and elsewhere.
[cgiar]: http://www.cgiar.org/consortium-news/genebanks-investing-in-biodiversity-for-future-generations/
[irgcis]: http://www.irgcis.irri.org:81/grc/irgcishome.html
[irri]: http://irri.org/our-work/research/genetic-diversity/international-rice-genebank
[irri 2]: http://iric.irri.org/resources/3000-genomes-project
[irri 3]: http://iric.irri.org/home
[phl001]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/PHL001/data
[phl001-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/tyn7M0
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