Commit f32f4080 authored by jeremycherfas's avatar jeremycherfas
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Updates to CIAT, CIP, ICRAF

parent d82e5e44
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# International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
[CIAT's genebank][ciat] in Cali, Colombia, lists almost 65,000 accessions in Genesys. The vast majority are seed crops, mainly [beans][col003-beans], but CIAT also has a mandate to conserve [cassava][col003-cassava] and tropical forages, and those too are held in the genebank. Almost 2000 of the accessions are wild relatives. Since 1980 CIAT has distributed more than 90,000 samples of 13,363 accessions to 110 countries.
[CIAT's genebank][ciat] in Cali, Colombia, lists almost 68,000 accessions in Genesys. The vast majority are seed crops, mainly [beans][col003-beans], but CIAT also has a mandate to conserve [cassava][col003-cassava] and tropical forages, and those too are held in the genebank. Almost 2000 of the accessions are wild relatives. The CIAT [bean collection][col003-beans] is the world's largest and most diverse, with more than 44,000 accessions.
The CIAT [bean collection][col003-beans] is the world's largest and most diverse, with more than 44,000 accessions. Since it started, the collection has sent more than 437,000 samples of 37,368 accession to recipients in 105 countries. Accessions are contributing to the breeding of more nutritious and more resilient varieties.
Since the collection started in 1978, CIAT has distributed more than 187,000 samples of 37,368 accession to recipients in 164 countries. Accessions are contributing to the breeding of more nutritious and more resilient varieties, not least by CIAT's own breeders.
Cassava is represented by [6592 accessions][col003-cassava] (883 of which are provided by 33 of the 98 wild relative species of _Manihot_) stored as microplants in tissue culture. This collection too is considered a global leader because of the number of accessions, their diversity and the geographic range they represent. More than 40,000 samples have been distributed, guaranteed free of the three major viruses thanks to the work of the germplasm health laboratory at CIAT. The laboratory also ensures that seeds of beans and tropical forages are free of pests and diseases.
Cassava is represented by [6592 accessions][col003-cassava] (883 of which are provided by 33 of the 98 wild relative species of _Manihot_) stored as microplants in tissue culture. This collection too is considered a global leader because of the number of accessions, their diversity and the geographic range they represent. More than 41,000 samples have been distributed to 69 countries, guaranteed free of the three major viruses thanks to the work of the germplasm health laboratory at CIAT. The laboratory also ensures that seeds of beans and tropical forages are free of pests and diseases.
The tropical forage collection is also a world leader, with more than 23,000 accessions of 700 species. CIAT and ILRI created the [Tropical Forages Database](http://www.tropicalforages.info), an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages.
The tropical forage collection is also a world leader, with more than 23,000 accessions of about 740 species. CIAT and ILRI created the [Tropical Forages Database](http://www.tropicalforages.info), an online version of an interactive selection tool that helps researchers, farmers and their advisers to find the most appropriate forages.
Two-thirds of the CIAT seed collection is safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.
Safety duplicates of 84% of the bean accessions and 78% of the forages have been placed in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault.
[ciat]: http://isa.ciat.cgiar.org/urg/main.do?language=en
[col003-beans]: https://goo.gl/O0uRTr
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Title: cip 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: cip 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 9 September 2016 Format: snippet
# International Potato Center (CIP)
The [CIP genebank][cipotato] in Lima, Peru, is responsible for potatoes and sweetpotatoes and other Andean roots and tubers. The entire collection at CIP is about 16,000 accessions. Genesys lists the [3000 accessions maintained _in vitro_][per001-invitro], 2000 of potato and 1000 of sweet potato. About 63% of these are breeding material or advanced cultivars, while 37% are traditional cultivars or landraces.
The [CIP genebank][cipotato] in Lima, Peru, is responsible for potatoes and sweetpotatoes and other Andean roots and tubers. The entire collection at CIP is about 19,000 accessions. Genesys lists [3000 accessions maintained _in vitro_][per001-invitro], 2000 of potato and 1000 of sweetpotato. About 63% of these are breeding material or advanced cultivars, while 37% are traditional cultivars or landraces.
The CIP collection is the world's largest _in vitro_ genebank. It includes more than 80% of the world's potato and sweetpotato landraces and more than 80% of the known species of wild potato. The CIP genebank also maintains more than 1500 accessions of Andean root and tuber crops. About 15,000 samples have been distributed to 94 countries.
The CIP collection is the world's largest _in vitro_ genebank. It likely includes more than 80% of the world's potato and sweetpotato landraces and more than 80% of the known species of wild potato. The CIP genebank also maintains more than 1500 accessions of Andean root and tuber crops.
Accessions are kept as clonal collections in field and _in vitro_ (many cryopreserved) and as seeds. CIP is also working with farmers and local organizations in the Andes to conserve crops in farmers' fields. Part of that effort has involved giving varieties back to communities that had lost them. As researchers monitor the changes that take place as farmers grow and adapt these varieties, they also get the opportunity to discover and incorporate new varieties in the collection.
From 2002 to 2012 CIP distributed more than 50,000 samples to 100 countries.
Material from the CIP genebank was instrumental in breeding the [orange-fleshed sweet potatoes][cipotato 2] that are currently improving nutrition in much of sub-Saharan Africa. These varieties are naturally rich in pre-cursors to vitamin A, and as part of the daily diet can prevent vitamin A deficiency.
Accessions are kept as clonal collections in the field, greenhouses and _in vitro_ (many cryopreserved) and as seeds. CIP is also working with farmers and local organizations in the Andes to conserve crops in farmers' fields. Part of that effort has involved giving varieties back to communities that had lost them. As researchers monitor the changes that take place as farmers grow and adapt these varieties, they also get the opportunity to discover and incorporate new varieties in the collection.
Material from the CIP genebank was instrumental in breeding the [orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes][cipotato 2] that are currently improving nutrition in much of sub-Saharan Africa. These varieties are naturally rich in pre-cursors to vitamin A, and as part of the daily diet can prevent vitamin A deficiency.
A unit for the detection and elimination of pathogens enables the CIP genebank to distribute healthy material. CIP was the first genebank to be accredited by the International Standards Organization (ISO 17025) for safe and secure germplasm movement.
About 82% of CIP's accessions **(JC: Discrepancy with 45% figure on Crop Trust website.)** are safety duplicated in the form of [true seed in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][per001-sgsv]. Additional safety duplicates are in Brazil and Peru and at CIAT in Colombia.
About 75% of CIP's seed accessions are safety duplicated in the form of [true seed in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][per001-sgsv]. Additional safety duplicates are in Brazil and Peru and at CIAT in Colombia.
[cipotato]: http://cipotato.org/genebank
[cipotato 2]: http://cipotato.org/sweetpotato/nutrition-2/
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Title: icraf 01 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 31 August 2016 Format: snippet
Title: icraf 02 Author: Jeremy Cherfas Date: 9 September 2016 Format: snippet
# World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF)
The [ICRAF genebank][worldagroforestry] in Nairobi, Kenya, conserves the diversity of a wide range of agroforestry tree species, most of which are a source of food or forage. Accessions are stored as seed and in field genebanks in the regions where ICRAF works.
The seed genebank currently holds almost 5400 accessions of about 150 species. Of these, [information on 4300][ken056] is available through Genesys. Seed is maintained in an active collection at 4°C, and for long-term conservation ICRAF works with the Millennium Seed Bank in the United Kingdom and the Kunming Institute of Botany in China.
The seed genebank currently holds almost 5300 accessions of 192 species. Of these, [information on 4300][ken056] is available through Genesys. Seed is maintained in an active collection at 5°C, and for long-term conservation ICRAF works with the Millennium Seed Bank in the United Kingdom and the Kunming Institute of Botany genebank in China.
Conservation of tree species poses special difficulties, including the large number of genera -- each with specific requirements -- long generation times and seeds that often cannot be dried for conventional storage. As a result, ICRAF has to maintain decentralised field genebanks. These field genebanks both conserve diversity and offer a source of sexual and clonal reproductive material. The field genebanks are also research sites for evaluation and characterisation. Overall, 60 diverse tree and shrub species are maintained in field genebanks spread across 16 countries.
Conservation of tree species poses special difficulties, including the large number of genera -- each with specific requirements -- long generation times and seeds that often cannot be dried for conventional storage. As a result, ICRAF has to maintain decentralised field genebanks. These field genebanks both conserve diversity and offer a source of sexual and clonal reproductive material. The field genebanks are also research sites for evaluation and characterisation. Overall, 11,000 accessions of 44 diverse tree and shrub species are maintained in field genebanks spread across 15 countries.
The seed and field genebank supply germplasm for ICRAF's research to domesticate some species, and to others wanting access to agroforestry plant genetic resources.
The seed and field genebanks supply germplasm for ICRAF's research to domesticate some species, and to others wanting access to agroforestry plant genetic resources.
Just over 3% of the seed accessions **(JC: Discrepancy with Crop Trust figure of 10%)** are [safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ken059-sgsv]. About 8% of the accessions are also safety duplicated in China.
About 14% of the seed accessions are [safety duplicated at the Svalbard Global Seed Vault][ken059-sgsv]. About 8% of the accessions are also safety duplicated in China.
A database -- the [Agroforestry Species Switchboard][worldagroforestry 2] -- gives access to "information sources to support tree research and development activities"
A database -- the [Agroforestry Species Switchboard][worldagroforestry 2] -- gives access to "information sources to support tree research and development activities".
[ken056]: https://www.genesys-pgr.org/wiews/KEN056/data
[ken059-sgsv]: https://goo.gl/zupVlM
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